- Sample preparation
Authors : Jeanne Ayache, Luc Beaunier, Jacqueline Boumendil, Gabrielle Ehret, Danièle Laub
This two-volume Handbook is a comprehensive guide to sample preparation for the transmission electron microscope. Sample Preparation Handbook for Transmission Electron Microscopy: Techniques describes 14 different preparation techniques, including 22 detailed protocols for preparing thin slices for TEM analysis. Compatibility and pre-treatments are also discussed. Experimental conditions and guidelines, options and variations, advantages and constraints, technical hints from the authors’ years of experience, common artifacts, and theoretical issues are all considered. Particular attention is given to the type of material, conditioning, compatible analysis of a given preparation, and risks. This practical and authoritative reference companion deserves a place on the bench in every TEM lab.
The first volume covers theoretical and practical aspects of sample preparation for TEM. It brings you tools for preparation and observation techniques. This volume also gives directions to the best preparative technique to implement by taking into account material types, material structures and their properties. Physical properties, material classification and microstructures are also compiled, alongside a thorough description of physics and chemistry of sample preparation techniques. This technical handbook identifies the main artefacts brought by the preparation techniques (mechanical, physical and chemical techniques). It covers a wide range of TEM analysis and observation modes and gives a comprehensive comparison between techniques used on the same material and offers tools to implement a particular technique onto a given material. A thoughtful discussion upon combination of techniques is also included to guide your complex sample analysis and to obtain TEM thin slice.
The second volume is dedicated to technical hints. 14 different preparation techniques are developed; compatibility and pre-treatments are also included. This volume also compiles 22 thin slice preparation detailed protocols for TEM analysis. It considers theoretical sidelight, experimental conditions and guidelines, options and variations, advantages and constraints, common artefacts brought by the given treatment of sample. Application fields of main techniques are developed with particular considerations on type of materials, conditioning, compatible analysis of a given preparation and the risks of the techniques.
Interestingly, a webpage dedicated to the topic of sample preparation has also been created by the authors http://temsamprep.in2p3.fr/.
- General references on TEM
Authors DB Williams and CB Carter
This text has been established as the market leader throughout the world. Now profusely illustrated with full color figures and diagrams throughout the text, Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science, Second Edition, provides the necessary insight and guidance for successful hands-on application of this versatile and powerful materials characterization technique. For this first new edition in 12 years, many sections have been completely rewritten with all others revised and updated. The new edition also includes an extensive collection of questions for the student, providing approximately 800 for self-assessment and over 400 that are suitable for homework assignment.
Authors L Reimer and H Kohl
The aim of this monograph is to outline the physics of image formation, electron-specimen interactions, and image interpretation in transmission el- tron microscopy. Since the last edition, transmission electron microscopy has undergone a rapid evolution. The introduction of monochromators and – proved energy filters has allowed electron energy-loss spectra with an energy resolution down to about 0.1 eV to be obtained, and aberration correctors are now available that push the point-to-point resolution limit down below 0.1 nm. After the untimely death of Ludwig Reimer, Dr. Koelsch from Springer- Verlag asked me if I would be willing to prepare a new edition of the book. As it had served me as a reference for more than 20 years, I agreed without hesitation. Distinct from more specialized books on specific topics and from books intended for classroom teaching, the Reimer book starts with the basic principles and gives a broad survey of the state-of-the-art methods, comp- mented by a list of references to allow the reader to find further details in the literature. The main objective of this revised edition was therefore to include the new developments but leave the character of the book intact. The presentation of the material follows the format of the previous e- tion as outlined in the preface to that volume, which immediately follows. A few derivations have been modi?ed to correspond more closely to modern textbooks on quantum mechanics, scattering theory, or solid state physics.
Authors Hirsch, Howie, Nicholson, Pashley and Whelan
An old classic (the second edition is from 1977). It is a book for microscopists that includes information about hardware sample preparation that can be out of date. However, other thong never change, kinematical theory, crystallography… and the book go far into the theoretical foundations of electron microscopy, in fact most of the book deals with contrast interpretation. In fact it has been written by some of the developpers of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction which is presented in depth and applied to different problems. It is interesting to note that the book contains a chapter called Recent Developments which includes High resolution Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy!!.
- High-resolution TEM (HRTEM)
This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated – these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomography, image quantification and simulation, radiation damage, the measurement of electron-optical parameters, and detectors (CCD cameras, Image plates and direct-injection solid state detectors). The theory of Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and Z-contrast are treated comprehensively. Chapters are devoted to associated techniques, such as energy-loss spectroscopy, Alchemi, nanodiffraction, environmental TEM, twisty beams for magnetic imaging, and cathodoluminescence. Sources of software for image interpretation and electron-optical design are given.
- Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS)
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) is a high resolution technique used for the analysis of thin samples of material. The technique is used in many modern transmission electron microscopes to characterise materials. This book provides an up-to-date introduction to the principles and applications of EELS. Specific topics covered include, theory of EELS, elemental quantification, EELS fine structure, EELS imaging and advanced techniques.
Author RF Egerton
Within the last 30 years, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has become a standard analytical technique used in the transmission electron microscope to extract chemical and structural information down to the atomic level. In two previous editions, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope has become the standard reference guide to the instrumentation, physics and procedures involved, and the kind of results obtainable. Within the last few years, the commercial availability of lens-aberration correctors and electron-beam monochromators has further increased the spatial and energy resolution of EELS. This thoroughly updated and revised Third Edition incorporates these new developments, as well as advances in electron-scattering theory, spectral and image processing, and recent applications in fields such as nanotechnology. The appendices now contain a listing of inelastic mean free paths and a description of more than 20 MATLAB programs for calculating EELS data.
- Scanning TEM (STEM)
Editors SJ Pennycook and PD Nellist
Scanning transmission electron microscopy has become a mainstream technique for imaging and analysis at atomic resolution and sensitivity, and the authors of this book are widely credited with bringing the field to its present popularity. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy(STEM): Imaging and Analysis will provide a comprehensive explanation of the theory and practice of STEM from introductory to advanced levels, covering the instrument, image formation and scattering theory, and definition and measurement of resolution for both imaging and analysis. The authors will present examples of the use of combined imaging and spectroscopy for solving materials problems in a variety of fields, including condensed matter physics, materials science, catalysis, biology, and nanoscience. Therefore this will be a comprehensive reference for those working in applied fields wishing to use the technique, for graduate students learning microscopy for the first time, and for specialists in other fields of microscopy.
- Image formation, processing and simulation
Author WO Saxton
All about image formation in TEM. From a perspective of wave optics and information theory. It is not easy to follow the argumentation of the author, and you must have a good mathematical background. But it contains precious information on image processing and especially of methodologies for solving the phase problem.
Author Earl J Kirkland
Advanced Computing in Electron Microscopy, 2nd Edition, brings together diverse information on image simulation. An invaluable resource, this book provides information on various methods for numerical computation of high resolution conventional and scanning transmission electron microscope images. This text will serve as a great tool for students at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level, as well as experienced researchers in the field. This enhanced second edition includes:
-descriptions of new developments in the field. -updated references. -additional material on aberration corrected instruments and confocal electron microscopy. -expanded and improved examples and sections to provide stronger clarity.
Author Marc de Graef
This book is a general reference, but I included it in this section because most of the content is supported by software and algorithms that can be used by the reader.
This 2003 book covers the fundamentals of conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) as applied to crystalline solids. Emphasis is on the experimental and computational methods used to quantify and analyze CTEM observations. A supplementary website containing interactive modules and free Fortran source code accompanies the text. The book starts with the basics of crystallography and quantum mechanics providing a sound mathematical footing for the rest of the text. The next section deals with the microscope itself, describing the various components in terms of the underlying theory. The second half of the book focuses on the dynamical theory of electron scattering in solids including its applications to perfect and defective crystals, electron diffraction and phase contrast techniques. Based on a lecture course given by the author in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, the book is ideal for graduate students as well as researchers new to the field.
- Monte Carlo Simulation
Author DC Joy
This book describes for the first time how Monte Carlo modeling methods can be applied to electron microscopy and microanalysis. Computer programs for two basic types of Monte Carlo simulation are developed from physical models of the electron scattering process–a single scattering program capable of high accuracy but requiring long computation times, and a plural scattering program which is less accurate but much more rapid. Optimized for use on personal computers, the programs provide a real time graphical display of the interaction. The programs are then used as the starting point for the development of programs aimed at studying particular effects in the electron microscope, including backscattering, secondary electron production, EBIC and cathodo-luminescence imaging, and X-ray microanalysis. The computer code is given in a fully annotated format so that it may be readily modified for specific problems. Throughout, the author includes numerous examples of how such applications can be used. Students and professionals using electron microscopes will want to read this important addition to the literature.
- Electron tomography
Author Joachin Frank
Electron tomography has become a standard technique with applications in cell biology, structural biology, and materials science. This definitive work provides a comprehensive treatment of the mathematical background and working methods of three-dimensional reconstruction from tilt series, with special emphasis on the problems presented by limitations of data collection in the transmission electron microscope. In addition to chapters that are applicable to 3D reconstruction in all fields of science, such as radiological imaging in medicine and electron tomography in materials science, Electron Tomography also focuses on specimen preparation and imaging unique to biological electron microscopy.
There is a second edition that focuses on soft materials and updates key contributions on the mathematics of 3D reconstruction, and includes new topics such as automated tomography, frozen sectioning of cells, and the interpretation of density maps through methods of fitting, docking, denoising, and segmentation. Each chapter is a self-contained treatise by a world expert in the author’s field of research, resulting in an indispensable resource and companion for laboratories that practice electron tomography or seek to implement electron tomography as a tool for visualization of cells and cell components.
- Crystallography and Diffraction
Author PE Chapness
An introductory level guide to electron diffraction in the TEM – This book is a practical guide to electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Case studies and examples are used to provide an invaluable introduction to the subject for those new to the technique. The book explains the basic methods used to obtain diffraction patterns with the TEM. The numerous illustrations aid the understanding of the conclusions reached. * Gives useful case studies and examples to guide the new user * User-friendly approach with simple explanations and informative illustrations Explains the basic methods of how to obtain images and patterns with the TEM, and how to interpret them. TAMs are used in many labs, and allow users to explore the structure of a specimen of interest (e.g. a section through a particular material, crystal or tissue). The TEM is used to pass electrons through a sample, and the electrons are scattered or diffracted in order to produce an image. This book looks at the patterns produced by diffracted electrons to study the appearance, orientation and structure of the sample.
Authors JCH Spence and JM Zuo
Much of this book was written during a sabbatical visit by J. C. H. S. to the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart during 1991. We are therefore grateful to Professors M. Ruhle and A. Seeger for acting as hosts during this time, and to the Alexander von Humbolt Foundation for the Senior Scientist Award which made this visit possible. The Ph. D. work of one of us (J. M. Z. ) has also provided much of the background for the book, together with our recent papers with various collaborators. Of these, perhaps the most important stimulus to our work on convergent-beam electron diffraction resulted from a visit to the National Science Foundation’s Electron Microscopy Facility at Arizona State University by Professor R. H(lJier in 1988, and from a return visit to Trondheim by J. C. H. S. in 1990. We are therefore particularly grateful to Professor H(lJier and his students and co-workers for their encouragement and collaboration. At ASU, we owe a particular debt of gratitude to Professor M. O’Keeffe for his encouragement. The depth of his under standing of crystal structures and his role as passionate skeptic have frequently been invaluable. Professor John Cowley has also been an invaluable sounding board for ideas, and was responsible for much of the experimental and theoretical work on coherent nanodiffraction. The sections on this topic derive mainly from collaborations by J. C. H. S. with him in the seventies.
Author J Cowley
The first edition of this highly successful book appeared in 1975 and evolved from lecture notes for classes in physical optics, diffraction physics and electron microscopy given to advanced undergraduate and graduate students. The book deals with electron diffraction and diffraction from disordered or imperfect crystals and employed an approach using the Fourier transform from the beginning instead of as an extension of a “Fourier” series treatment. This third revised edition is a considerably rewritten and updated version which now includes all important developments which have taken place in recent years.
Authors X Zou, S Hovmoller and P Oleynikov
In the modern world of ever smaller devices and nanotechnology, electron crystallography emerges as the most important method capable of determining the structure of minute objects down to the size of individual atoms. Crystals of only a few millionths of a millimetre are studied. This is the first textbook explaining how this is done. Great attention is given to symmetry in crystals and how it manifests itself in electron microscopy and electron diffraction, and how this symmetry can be determined and taken advantage of in achieving improved electron microscopy images and solving crystal structures from electron diffraction patterns.
Theory and practice are combined; experimental images, diffraction patterns, formulae and numerical data are discussed in parallel, giving the reader a complete understanding of what goes on inside the “black boxes” of computer programs.
This up-to-date textbook contains the newest techniques in electron crystallography, including detailed descriptions and explanations of the recent remarkable successes in determining the very complex structures of zeolites and intermetallics. The controversial issue of whether there is phase information present in electron micrsocopy images or not is also resolved once and for all.
The extensive appendices include computer labs which have been used at various courses at Stockholm University and international schools in electron crystallography, with applications to the textbook. Students can download image processing programs and follow these lab instructions to get a hands-on experience of electron crystallography.
- Electron Holography
Authors E Volkl, LF Allard and DC Joy
Experienced and novice holographers receive a solid foundation in the theory and practice of holography, the next generation of imaging technology, in this superb text. The book’s `how to’ aspects enable readers to learn hologram acquisition at the microscope and processing of holograms at the computer as well as digital imaging techniques. A complete bibliography on electron holography and applications of the method to problems in materials science, physics and the life sciences round out the volume’s coverage.
Author A Tonomura
This is an introduction to electron holography, a technique for observing and measuring microscopic structures of matter and fields using the wave nature of electrons. It describes principles, experimental details, and observation examples for vortices in superconductors, the magnetic domain structure in ferromagnets, and for fundamental phenomena of quantum mechanics.
- Other books
Author A Tonomura
This book emphasizes the experimental aspects of the author’s own laboratory. Instead of merely presenting a dry collection of knowledge, the author unfolds to the reader his vivid experiences of enthusiasm, sheer pleasure, and yet frustrations in the course of his own research. In this way, the book aims to arouse the reader’s curiosity in the strange behaviours of electrons in the microscopic world, which differ significantly from our common sense and daily experiences of the macroscopic world. The fields of physics explored in the book are quantum mechanics, superconductivity, electron microscopy, holography, magnetism and unified theory – areas of the author’s study using electron waves
Authors AH Zewail and JM Thomas
The modern electron microscope, as a result of recent revolutionary developments and many evolutionary ones, now yields a wealth of quantitative knowledge pertaining to structure, dynamics, and function barely matched by any other single scientific instrument. It is also poised to contribute much new spatially-resolved and time-resolved insights of central importance in the exploration of most aspects of condensed matter, ranging from the physical to the biological sciences. Whereas in all conventional EM methods, imaging, diffraction, and chemical analysis have been conducted in a static – time-integrated – manner, now it has become possible to unite the time domain with the spatial one, thereby creating four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy. This advance is based on the fundamental concept of timed, coherent single-electron packets, or electron pulses, which are liberated with femtosecond durations. Structural phase transitions, mechanical deformations, and the embryonic stages of melting and crystallization are examples of phenomena that can now be imaged in unprecedented structural detail with high spatial resolution, and ten orders of magnitude as fast as hitherto. No monograph in existence attempts to cover the revolutionary dimensions that EM in its various modes of operation nowadays makes possible. The authors of this book chart these developments, and also compare the merits of coherent electron waves with those of synchrotron radiation. They judge it prudent to recall some important basic procedural and theoretical aspects of imaging and diffraction so that the reader may better comprehend the significance of the new vistas and applications now afoot. This book is not a vade mecum – numerous other texts are available for the practitioner for that purpose. It is instead an in-depth expose of the paradigm concepts and the developed techniques that can now be executed to gain new knowledge in the entire domain of biological and physical science, and in the four dimensions of space and time.
Also you can check the exhaustive list of books on Electron Microscopy at the European Microscopy Society (EMS) Webpage: Books on EM